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現代世界の英語−経済 (3)

 

経済成長
economic growth

名目成長
nominal growth
nominal: a nominal value etc does not show what something is really worth or really costs, because it does not take into account changes in the price of other goods and services - LDCE
If prices rise and the nominal wage remains constant, the real wage falls. - LDCE

実質成長
real growth
real: a real increase or decrease in an amount of money is one you calculate by including the general decrease in the value of money over a period of time - LDCE
Wages rose by 2.9% last year, but real earnings still fell by 1.3%. - CALD
The average value of salaries has fallen in real terms. - LDCE
in real terms
「実質で、実質ベースで」

高度成長 high [rapid] growth
低成長 low economic growth (TREND)
ゼロ成長 no [zero] economic growth (TREND)

デフレ経済
deflationary economy
deflationary < deflation: a reduction of the supply of money in an economy, and therefore a reduction of economic activity, which is often part of an intentional government plan to reduce prices - CALD

インフレ経済
inflationary economy
inflationary < inflation: a continuing increase in prices, or the rate at which prices increase - LDCE

デフレスパイラル
deflationary spiral
spiral: a process, usually a harmful one, in which something gradually but continuously gets worse or better - LDCE

インフレスパイラル
inflationary spiral
inflationary spiral: a situation in which prices increase, then people are paid more in their jobs, which then causes the price of goods and services to increase again, and so on - CALD

下方スパイラル
downward spiral
downward spiral: when a price, etc. is decreasing, or when a situation is getting worse and is difficult to control because one bad event causes another - CALD