英会話学校/英会話スクール 英語学校/教室 東京新宿

英語・英会話の情報センター

現代世界の英語−政治 (5)

 

革命
revolution
revolution: a time when people change a ruler or political system by using force or violence - LDCE
The French Revolution changed France from a monarchy to a republic. - CALD

反革命
counterrevolution
counter-revolution: political or military actions taken to get rid of a government that is in power because of a previous revolution - LDCE
She was tried and executed for being a counter-revolutionary. - CALD

粛清
purge
purge: an action to remove your opponents or the people who disagree with you from an organization or place - LDCE
Between 1934 and 1938, Stalin mounted a massive purge of the Communist Party, the government and the armed forces in the Soviet Union. - CALD

独裁政治、独裁制
dictatorship
dictatorship: 1. a country ruled by a dictator 2. the state of being, or being ruled by, a dictator - CALD
The dictatorship of General Franco lasted for nearly 40 years. - CALD

独裁者 dictator, autocrat
dictator: a leader who has complete power in a country and has not been elected by the people - CALD

寡頭政治、寡頭制
oligarchy
oligarchy: 1. a small group of people who run a country or organization, or a country that is run by a small group of people 2. when a country or organization is run by a small group of people - LDCE
Eventually oligarchy took over from democracy. - CALD

君主政治、君主制
monarchy
monarchy: 1. the system in which a country is ruled by a king or queen 2. a country that is ruled by a king or queen - LDCE
Is monarchy relevant in the modern world or should it be abolished? - CALD

立憲君主制 constitutional monarchy
constitutional monarchy: a country ruled by a king or queen whose power is limited by a constitution - LDCE

共産主義
communism
communism: a political system in which the government controls the production of all food and goods, and there is no privately owned property - LDCE

民主主義
democracy
democracy: the belief in freedom and equality between people, or a system of government based on this belief, in which power is either held by elected representatives or directly by the people themselves - CALD
The early 1990s saw the spread of democracy in Eastern Europe. - CALD

無政府主義
anarchism, anarchy
anarchism: the political belief that there should be no government and ordinary people should work together to improve society - LDCE